Confounders are the Achilles’ heel of multifactorial epidemiology as, in the course of natural life, diseases stem from a vast multiplicity of known (or most often just suspected) factors that may interact in an astronomical number of ways. Differently from monofactorial diseases such as polio or tuberculosis, therefore, it becomes impossible to establish causality with any certainly. Yet, for smoking and other lifestyles, the opinions and guesses of people who cannot disentangle the interaction of confounders with any reliability are presented as hard scientific proof and without doubt. That is when ideologies, beliefs and superstitions pollute science and public health policies.
Full 'Confounders' category Scientific Evidence Listing (8 documents)
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